Complications in Pregnancy
95% of pregnancies are NORMAL. This means that no abnormalities occur during pregnancy. A “normal” pregnancy includes nausea, frequent urination, emotional disturbances, shortness of breath and heartburn. However, those conditions that can cause complications are NOT included. Read on to learn more about some of the most common diseases, such as asthma, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or sickle cell disease.
Bronchial asthma is characterized by bronchospasm (manifested mainly by wheezing and shortness of breath) and by airway hypersecretion (manifested by coughing). It is due to allergic and other factors (respiratory infections, cold air, emotional reasons, etc.). While the incidence of asthma was reported at 1% during pregnancy, it is now an increasingly common disorder. Where possible, prevention should be avoided by avoiding allergens that have been identified.
Many difficult issues arise when cancer is diagnosed in a pregnant woman. The duration of treatment depends on the circumstances of the present pregnancy and whether the cancers was diagnosed before pregnancy or while the woman was already pregnant.
Cervical insufficiency is defined as the condition in which the cervix dilates (opens and narrows) due to pressure from the developing fetus and the uterus prematurely with an immediate risk of miscarriage.
Skin changes are expected to occur normally in pregnancy. The skin undergoes changes during pregnancy due to hormonal and metabolic effects. These changes include hyperpigmentation , chloasma, vascular changes and changes in the hair, nails and glands. Chloasma (melasma or pregnancy mask) is a type of “melanoma” of the face that affects up to 70% of pregnant women.
The lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis are autoimmune vascular disorders of collagen. In women, both of these conditions have a predisposition to occur during their reproductive age.
This is a term that includes various pathological conditions associated with placental abnormalities.
Many women suffer from mild headaches early in pregnancy. However, this symptom should not be ignored.
The syndrome is characterized by hemolysis , elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP: Hemolysis , Elevated Liver enzymes , Low Platelet count ). It occurs in 50% of pregnant women with eclampsia but can often occur with a moderate increase in blood pressure. Predisposing factors are a woman’s old age and longevity.
Anemia is a common problem worldwide and one of the most common complications associated with pregnancy. Due to the physiological changes observed during pregnancy, anemia is even more common than in non-pregnant women. It is associated with poor nutrition and lack of medication. Anemia during pregnancy is usually iron deficiency (due to iron deficiency) or megaloblastic (due to lack of folic acid or vitamin B12).
The various types of thrombocytopenia as well as hemoglobinopathies are blood disorders that can occur during pregnancy. This does not happen often, but it can have very serious complications.
It is due to a genetic abnormality and is characterized by faster destruction of red blood cells than normal. Normal bone marrow function cannot respond to this rate of destruction. The diagnosis is made by hemoglobin electrophoresis and the sickle test . This condition presents a number of unique challenges during pregnancy.
Thrombophlebitis is caused by inflammation and clot formation in one or more of your veins. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis is a thrombosis of the pelvic vessels, with coexistence of inflammation (consequence of pelvic infection). Premature rupture of membranes, as well as cesarean section are predisposing factors.
Although cases of kidney disease are rare during pregnancy, this can have serious consequences (in pregnancy).
Multiple sclerosis is a common neurological disorder that generally affects young adults. The exact cause of this neurological disorder is unclear.
Serious periodontal disease in pregnant women has been shown to increase the risk of premature and low birth weight newborns sevenfold, so it is recommended that a dental examination be performed as part of the antenatal check-up.
ABO incompatibility occurs when the blood type of the fetus is different from the blood type of the mother. When blood types are different, the mother makes antibodies against the fetus. The mother’s body may “attack” him in an attempt to “defend” himself against blood that is not compatible with hers, as these antibodies penetrate the placenta and begin to destroy fetal blood cells.
The presence of amniotic bands (fibrous bands that can trap the fetus) inside the fetal sac comes from premature rupture of the amniotic sac (placenta) and the findings vary. There is a lack of fingers or toes, facial deformities (cleft lip, cleft palate, micrognathia ), abnormalities of the abdominal wall, or cerebral hernia .
Paralysis (slight paralysis of the muscles) of the plexus arm and fracture of the key are fetal injuries that can occur in a difficult vaginal delivery. These lesions usually occur when it is difficult for the fetus (shoulder dystocia) to come out of the fetus in childbirth in a baby with macrosomia (i.e large and overweight).
Down syndrome (or Trisomy 21) describes a chromosomal abnormality, which encompasses a set of characteristics that are congenital in the carriers of this genetic defect and relate to abnormalities in their physique, mental development and psychosocial development. It is the most common genetic abnormality, occurring in about 1 in 900 births.
Residual intrauterine growth or developmental delay of the fetus is the condition in which the fetus lags behind in development and nutrition (ie in weight) compared to the expected gestational age.
The macrosomia is a term used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe fetuses older than gestational age. The percentage of embryos weighing more than 4000 grams is about 5%, while the percentage of embryos weighing more than 4500 grams is estimated at 0.5-1%.
Fetal is defined as death that occurs after the twentieth week of pregnancy (ie from the fifth month onwards) and accounts for 50% of all perinatal deaths. (Before the 20th week is considered automatic miscarriage).
These tests are designed to check the placenta to assess if the necessary nutrients as well as oxygen are being transferred to the fetus.
Occurs when the fetus or newborn inhales meconium (a substance that accumulates in the fetus’s gut and forms its first stool), which could enter the lungs, slowly passing from the upper to the lower airways, resulting in worsening respiratory function. .
In premature abortion, the placenta detaches from the uterus before the fetus is born. Detachment is expected to occur normally after the complete exit (birth) of the fetus.
Precursor is the placenta that adheres “prodromally”, ie in the lower part of the uterus. It can be very close or cover the inner cervix, making normal delivery difficult or often impossible.
It is called childbirth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy. Premature birth is one of the most serious obstetric complications. About 1 in 10 pregnancies results in the premature birth of a small baby.
The term abortions or miscarriages is used in cases where there are 3 or more consecutive miscarriages without childbirth. In other words, these are fetal losses at a gestational age of less than 20 weeks and with fetuses weighing less than 500 grams.
Health scientists have issued a new directive on the dangers that can arise from the consumption of fish, because the increased concentration of mercury in certain species of fish can affect the normal development of the fetus. Therefore, they must be consumed with caution.