The methods currently available for breast examination are self-examination, examination by specialist (clinical examination), mammogram and ultrasound. These methods complement each other but cannot replace one another. According to international literature, mammogram is highly effective in detecting breast cancer when combined with other methods.

Breast self-examination should be performed once a month, within 7-10 days after your period starts, when the breast is in a state of “calm” in terms of hormonal stimulation. If you are in menopause and hormonal changes do not affect the breast, you can choose any day of the month (e.g. every first day of the month) to examine your breasts. A woman should perform a breast self-examination during pregnancy, but she be should be aware of breast changes, such as swelling and dark complexion of the nipple. A clinical examination, when no suspicious findings are detected, must be performed annually.

Breast self-examination has two phases:

  1.  Stand in front of the mirror and check your breasts for any abnormality in the shape, size and skin in both breasts and nipples.
  2. Then, by raising your hands, repeat the process.


    You should contact your doctor immediately when abnormalities are observed in only ONE breast.